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Roles of Dopamine on Parkinson

INTRODUCTION

Dopamine induced neurotoxicity for a long time has been imagined to be involved not only in adverse reaction induced by long term L-dihydroxyphenylalanine therapy but also in the pathogenesis Parkinson’s disease. In the recent researches, it has been revealed common cases of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine induced neurotoxicity. There are several reactions involved in the body cells that result in production of chemical wastes whose accumulation can be considered fatal. Some of the resulting chemical products of such reaction are very reactive molecules and can therefore alter the normal functioning of the body cells. Actually, the movement regulation is brought about through sophisticated interaction among different nerve cells in the central nervous system. Dopamine therefore acts as a neurotransmitter which links neurons of the substantia nigra in the ventral midbrain and the neurons of the basal ganglia. As such, Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder which impedes the movement control function in an organism. It is also known as paralysis agitans.

This disease causes a condition in which the neurons responsible for secretion of the neurotransmitter to gradually degenerate leading to insufficient production of dopamine. It therefore implies that the dopamine available in the corpus striatum is less than the required amount for effective transmission of impulses that bring about movement control.

The low levels of dopamine compromises movement control in the body and therefore its lack is exhibited in certain symptoms such as resting tremor, rigidity, loss of postural reflexes, gradual slowness of spontaneous movements. All these are a manifestation of poor balance and motor coordination.

Researchers have shown that among the reactive components of metabolism include dopamine. Actually, this chemical and its metabolites which consist of two hydroxyl residues exert cytotoxicity in the dopaminergic neuron cells. This is due to the degeneration of the most reactive components. Due to the ability of dopamine to alter the synthesis of proteins, there are greater chances of causing inability of the body to establish control over movement activities, a condition referred to as Parkinson’s disease.

In a nutshell, the effect of dopamine in causing Parkinson disease is manifested in the alteration that it causes on the normal synthesis of proteins in the body. Since dopamine is a neurotransmitter that brings about co-ordination of movements by the central nervous system, its inadequacy or degeneration of cells that secret it leads to serious effects in the body. As a result, the body becomes unable to effectively exercise control on movement processes.